Saturday, December 7, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Software Engineering Methodology. Answer: Introduction The main purpose of this assignment is to understand the development of real time system in terms of ensuring the secured money transfer. This study analyses the real time structure by considering the external entity relationship diagram, control and data flow diagram, process specification for secured money transfer and control process. External Entity-Relationship Diagram Figure 1: External ER-Diagram of Online Banking System (Source: Created by author) Data Flow Diagram Figure 2: DFD of Online Banking System (Source: Create by author) Process Specification Step 1 - Start Step 2 - Provide username and password Step 3 Check username and password with bank database (First time set counter = 0) Step 4 Check Validity if counter 5 Step 5 go to step 2 or if counter 5 then process with next step Step 6 Enter transection details Step 7 Verify transection details Step 8 enter amount (a) Step 9 - check account amount (m) Step 10 if am then go to next step Step 11 if else ma then go to step 8 Step 12 -- send verification code to the register mobile (x) and set c = 0 Step 13 If c5 then go to step 12 else c5 then go to next step Step 14 Transection completed, amount debited for account Step 15 -- send notification of when transection done. Control Specifications Control specification details Name Check authentication Description The authentication of user will be checked by bank in this process. Input Data flow Username and password Name Prompts user interface Description The completion of first process will be followed by a user interface where user can enter the details for fund transfer. Input Data flow Transfer of funds Name Transfer of Funds Description The user can transfer funds into their account. Input Data flow Account info Name Checking OTP Description After fund transfer one OTP will send to the user mobile for further verification. Input Data flow Checking OTP Name Process the transfer and update Description After the transection the account will be updated Input Data flow Account details Process activation table Input events Activated process Username 1 Password 1 Option for transfer 1 Checking of available balance in account 1 Checking OTP 1 Logout 1 Username 0 Password 0 State Machine Diagram Figure 3: State diagram of Online Banking System (Source: Created by author) Data Dictionary Table Client Index Column name Data type Primary key ClientID Varchar (100) Name Varchar (100) Address_Current Varchar (100) DOB Date KYC_information Blob Table Account Index Column name Data type Primary key AccountNo Varchar (100) Foreign key ClientID Varchar (100) Amount Number (1000,2) Interest_rate Number (1000,2) CVV_number Number Issue_Date Date Expire_Date Date Table Transfer Index Column name Data type Primary key TransectionID Varchar (100) Foreign key AccountNo Varchar (100) OTP Number (4) Date/time date Amount Number (1000,2) Recipient_AC_info Varchar (100) Table Withdraw Index Column name Data type Primary key WDCode Varchar (100) Foreign key AccountNumber Varchar (100) Request_Amount Number (4) BranchCode Varchar (100) ATMCode Number(4) Table Deposit Index Column name Data type Primary key DepCode Varchar (100) Foreign key AccountNo Varchar (100) Amount Number (100,2) BranchCode Varchar (100) DepositorName Varchar(100) Table Branch Index Column name Data type Primary key BranchCode Varchar (100) Foreign key Bank_ID Varchar (100) Branch_Name Varchar (100) Address Varchar(100) Table Bank Index Column name Data type Primary key Bank ID Varchar (100) BankName Varchar (100) BankAddress Varchar(100) Conclusion The database designer create an entity relationship diagram for the real-time money transfer system. A data flow diagram shows the process and the flow of data. A process activation table also given in this document. The control specification diagram help the database designer to understand the entire system clearly. The data dictionary represent the data type and entity name which will be used to create the database system. All the diagram are design perfectly by specifying the real time money transfer system. Bibliography Arcuri, A., Briand, L. (2014). A hitchhiker's guide to statistical tests for assessing randomized algorithms in software engineering. Software Testing, Verification and Reliability, 24(3), 219-250. Bailis, P., Fekete, A., Franklin, M. J., Ghodsi, A., Hellerstein, J. M., Stoica, I. (2014). Coordination Avoidance in Database Systems (Extended Version). arXiv preprint arXiv:1402.2237. Bestavros, A., Lin, K. J., Son, S. H. (Eds.). (2012). Real-time database systems: Issues and applications (Vol. 396). Springer Science Business Media. Braude, E. J., Bernstein, M. E. (2016). Software engineering: modern approaches. Waveland Press. Hsiao, D. K., Neuhold, E. J., Sacks-Davis, R. (2014, May). An object-oriented integration framework for building heterogeneous database systems. In Interoperable Database Systems (DS-5): Proceedings of the IFIP WG2. 6 Database Semantics Conference on Interoperable Database Systems (DS-5) Lorne, Victoria, Australia, 16-20 November, 1992 (Vol. 25, p. 33). Elsevier. Mall, R. (2014). Fundamentals of software engineering. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.. Nwosu, K. C., Thuraisingham, B., Berra, P. B. (Eds.). (2012). Multimedia Database Systems: design and implementation strategies. Springer Science Business Media. Pahl, G., Beitz, W. (2013). Engineering design: a systematic approach. Springer Science Business Media. Wade, B. W., Chamberlin, D. D. (2012). Ibm relational database systems: The early years. IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, 34(4), 38-48. Yamada, S. (2014). Software reliability modeling: fundamentals and applications (Vol. 5). Tokyo: Springer.
Saturday, November 30, 2019
Superman and Me vs. Bodega Dreams Paper 1 Makeitha C Mrs. Rogers ENC 1102, 4:05 November 29th, 2011 Culture vs. Education Culture is an essential element that can impact the way a person sees the world and processes information. Ã¢â¬Å"Superman and Me,Ã¢â¬ by Sherman Alexie and Ã¢â¬Å"Bodega Dreams,Ã¢â¬ by Ernesto Quinonez, examines the importance of education and the impact it has on cultures. In Ã¢â¬Å"Superman and MeÃ¢â¬ the narrator tells a story about an Indian boy who teaches himself how to read and write at the age of 3 years. Despite the challenges he was face with living on an Indian Reservation, he remained motivated and interested in gaining more knowledge in reading and writing. Bodega Dreams,Ã¢â¬ by Ernesto Quinonez the narrator tells a story about two young Latino boys and their experience together in Junior High school. The young boys are in English and Science class together. Although the boys are not motivated about school, there teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s (Mr. Blessington and Mr. Tapia) try different me thods to keep them motivated and focus in school. These two stories will debate how culture influences children view point in education. In the story Ã¢â¬Å"Superman and meÃ¢â¬ the narrator details methods he uses to learn how to recognize a paragraph and picture read using a Superman comic book. The narrator explains how he was very motivated about learning to read and write. The narrator seemed to be a very driven man who knew exactly what he wanted, and was willing to do whatever it took to achieve his goals. The narrator expresses himself with self-confidence by stating, Ã¢â¬Å"I am smart. I am arrogant. I am lucky. I want to save my life (209-210). Ã¢â¬ Being an Indian boy who lived on a reservation, he felt many people were expecting him to fail in the non-Indian world and he was determined to prove them wrong. The narrator states, Ã¢â¬Å"I never was taught how to write poetry, short stories, and novels. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t recall a guest teacher visiting the reservation (210). 2 The narrator tells how he was enthused about reading and the different methods he used to learn the words. He tells about the many struggles he had to endure because he was different, he was not ashamed to show his intelligence. He explains how his Indian peers were afraid to show their intelligence by not speaking out in class or around other peers. The narrator argues that Indian children are stereotyped as unintelligent failures. We will write a custom essay sample on Superman and Me vs. Bodega Dreams specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Superman and Me vs. Bodega Dreams specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Superman and Me vs. Bodega Dreams specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The issue is the author wants readers to recognize that Indian children were not well educated in reading and writing, they needed to be encouraged to read and write, and exposed to more literature. The Indian children lacked motivation in learning to read and write. They were comfortable with just knowing powwow songs and jokes. The narrator wanted the Indian students to see the importance in reading. He wanted them to understand reading is more than just the reading of words, but a way to survive in the non-Indian world. The narrator states he eventually grew up and became a successful author/writer. He devotes his time working with Indian children and assisting them with reading and writing their own stories. Although the narrator tells about the struggles he had growing up on a reservation knowing how to read and write, he decides to give back to his community. The narrator teaches Indian children creative writing hoping they will change the perception about school and develop confidence and motivation like he did. Ernest QuinonezÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Bodega DreamsÃ¢â¬ the narratora young Latino boytells a story about an experience he had in Junior High school and the kind of relationship he had developed with his Science teacher (Mr. Tapia) and English teacher (Mr. Blessington). In the story the narrator tells how Mr. Tapia and Mr. Blessington interact differently with their students. The narrator explains how Mr. Blessington is not one of his favorite teachers. The narrator states, Ã¢â¬Å"He kept telling us boys were all going to end up in jail and all girls were going to end hooking (167). Ã¢â¬ The narrator explains how he is bored with listening to the Robert Frost poem in his class. The narrator states, Ã¢â¬Å"He was one of those upper-class people who thinks highly of themselvesÃ¢â¬ ¦and have chosen to Ã¢â¬Å"helpÃ¢â¬ poor kids from the ghetto (167). In Science class his teacher, Mr. Tapia, is inspiring to him. The narrator explains how Mr. Tapia encouraged his class to do their work. He felt all his students had the potential to do well. In the story the narrator enjoyed challenging the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s with questions just to get off task. The narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s friend (Sapo) had the same classes toge ther. 3 Sapo was very quiet and kept to himself until one day the Mr. Blessington approached him with a question. The narrator claims Sapo did not make an effect in class due to Mr. Blessington negative comments he makes towards him and his peers. Mr. Blessingon was not pleased with SapoÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude. Mr. Blessington and Sapo begin exchanging words which lead them to a heated discussion and a physical altercation. Mr. Blessington lost control and Sapo released anger. In the story Mr. Tapia tried to save Sapo by telling Sapo to lie about the altercation. Sapo did what Mr. Tapia told him to do in order to avoid the detention center. The incident eventually changed SapoÃ¢â¬â¢s persona. The young Latin boy was put in a position to where he lost control and it changed his whole outlook on life. In this story the author argues that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood environment often determine his or her character and life path. In the story the narrator provided evidence of how the students had supportive teachers and how their teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s encourage the students to be successful. Mr. Tapia and Mr. Blessington exposed their students to a variety of poetry and literature, and allowed them opportunities to complete their work either at home or in school. The stories share common points about the importance of reading and writing. In order for an individual to be successful in school is by making an effort and attempting to do the work. In Ã¢â¬Å"Superman and MeÃ¢â¬ the Indian boy wanted to be successful by taking matters in his own hands by teaching himself how to read and write. In Ã¢â¬Å"Bodega DreamsÃ¢â¬ the characters in the story were not interested in learning or doing their assignments, which became a disappointment to their teachers. I think the Indian children have a valid reason to feel conquered by their abilities to learn. Their cultural upbringing can be a factor which often causes them to lose interest in reading and writing. When teachers are working with children itÃ¢â¬â¢s important that they are sensitive to the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs, respect each childÃ¢â¬â¢s differences and culture, and be more mindful of their position in society. Providing support and positive guidance is the key when working with children and helping them become more involved in school. 4 In closing, these stories have a valid point and will stimulate more readers to think about the importance of culture and education. Stereotyping and prejudice can have a negative effect on children. Adults must remember children are in a vulnerable position. Allowing children to explore and have access to different learning materials will help them gain more knowledge. Respecting different cultures and communicating with children in positive ways will help develop self-confidence and help them have a better outlook on life. 5 Works Cited Alexie, Sherman. Ã¢â¬Å"Superman and Me. Ã¢â¬ Reading Literature and Writing Argument. 4th ed. Missy James and Alan Merickel. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2011. Print Quinonez, Ernest. Ã¢â¬Å"Bodega Dreams. Ã¢â¬ Reading Literature and Writing Argument. 4th ed. Missy James and Alan Merickel. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2011. Print.
Monday, November 25, 2019
A Hanging by George Orwell is a harsh, wake up call as to how cold and blind the human race can be. This story takes place in Burma, India in the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s. Orwell is a warder for a prison in Burma and he tells about his one experience as he prepares and puts a prisoner to death. They all gathered around him, six warders, and walked the prisoner out of his cell and towards the gallows. The prisoner went calmly but was very afraid Ã¢â¬â for his life is coming to an end in a mere 2 minutes and there is nothing he can do to change that. As the prisoner makes his way to the gallows, Orwell watches the him as he walks and notices that he came upon a puddle and steps aside to avoid getting his feet dirty, even though he is about to be put to death. Orwell starts to realize that the prisoner is a human being with feelings and thoughts, who is about to be cut short of his life. As they were walking to the gallows, into the yard comes this dog. Wild and happy to see so many people together, he went round the men, barking and wagging his whole body around. In an instant, the dog made a dash for the prisoner, trying to lick his face. The superintendent of the prison became angry, for he wanted to get along with the execution so in that way the other prisoners can get there breakfast. They escorted the prisoner to the gallows. Two warders then placed a noose around his neck and tightened it. The prisoner then began to cry out to his god Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Ram! Ram! Ram!Ã¢â¬ (Orwell, A Hanging, 234). It was a steady and rhythmical cry, not fearful and urgent. In hearing this sound, the dog answered with a whine. The warders then put a cotton bag over his face, but the sound muffled by the cloth, over and over again. Throwing up his head, the superintendent made a swift motion with his stick. Ã¢â¬Å"ChaloÃ¢â¬ he shouted fiercely. There was a clanking noise, and then dead silence. The... Free Essays on A Hanging Free Essays on A Hanging A Hanging by George Orwell is a harsh, wake up call as to how cold and blind the human race can be. This story takes place in Burma, India in the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s. Orwell is a warder for a prison in Burma and he tells about his one experience as he prepares and puts a prisoner to death. They all gathered around him, six warders, and walked the prisoner out of his cell and towards the gallows. The prisoner went calmly but was very afraid Ã¢â¬â for his life is coming to an end in a mere 2 minutes and there is nothing he can do to change that. As the prisoner makes his way to the gallows, Orwell watches the him as he walks and notices that he came upon a puddle and steps aside to avoid getting his feet dirty, even though he is about to be put to death. Orwell starts to realize that the prisoner is a human being with feelings and thoughts, who is about to be cut short of his life. As they were walking to the gallows, into the yard comes this dog. Wild and happy to see so many people together, he went round the men, barking and wagging his whole body around. In an instant, the dog made a dash for the prisoner, trying to lick his face. The superintendent of the prison became angry, for he wanted to get along with the execution so in that way the other prisoners can get there breakfast. They escorted the prisoner to the gallows. Two warders then placed a noose around his neck and tightened it. The prisoner then began to cry out to his god Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Ram! Ram! Ram!Ã¢â¬ (Orwell, A Hanging, 234). It was a steady and rhythmical cry, not fearful and urgent. In hearing this sound, the dog answered with a whine. The warders then put a cotton bag over his face, but the sound muffled by the cloth, over and over again. Throwing up his head, the superintendent made a swift motion with his stick. Ã¢â¬Å"ChaloÃ¢â¬ he shouted fiercely. There was a clanking noise, and then dead silence. The...
Friday, November 22, 2019
A Study of Family Issues in Pursuit of Happiness by Gabriele Muccino Pursuit of Happiness Pursuit of Happiness is about a family living check by check, just trying to get by. The husband Chris, that sells bone scanner machines. He had bought into these machines, thinking they would be a big hit, but not knowing that not many hospitals would be interested, because of the X-Ray machine, that was very similar. The wife/mother left, being stressed and not believing in her future with Chris, and their son Christopher. After her departure, it only went downhill. They became homeless, and had to move into a motel down the street. For a few months, Chris could still afford to send Christopher to a day-care, which a Chinese lady was in charge of, but later he could not, and had to take Christopher to work with him. After having been kicked out of the motel, and having nowhere to live, they were forced to sleep in a subway bathroom. After this incident, they stayed in a homeless shelter most of the nights. In the midst of the craziness he called life, Chris signed up for a free int ernship with a stock business, and had gotten top intern, which got him a job with the business. After he had got the job, he had good pay, and Chris and his son lived well. This movie can connect well with family issues, marriage issues, wealth problems, and poverty. Chapters 7: Social Class, 10: Race and Ethnic Stratification, 13: Crime and the Legal System, and 14: Marriage and Family, both correspond with the movie Pursuit of Happiness. Chapter 7 talks about social class, such as lower, middle, and upper class; depending on how much money you have. The main character, Chris, lives a poor life, in the Ã¢â¬Å"ghettoÃ¢â¬ , with his child, after his wife leaves, trying to make a living. He is in the lower class, but after winning a competitive internship, and being offered a job, he starts making good money, and starts to raise in social class. Chapter 10 talks about race and this deals with the movie because Chris, his son, and his wife are all African American, which might have interfered with him getting a job, or selling the amount of bone scanners he needed to sell. Chapter13 is about crime, and how society deals with it, and also the way the lega l system is set up. In the movie, there are various scenes of robbery, or in a specific scene, where one of Chris leaves his bone scanner with a homeless person outside of a building, because he is late for a meeting and canÃ¢â¬â¢t take it inside, and the person ends up stealing it. Chapter 14 speaks of marriage and family issues, which is the main happenings, mostly in the beginning of the movie. Their family had issues from the start of the movie, and only gets worse. Chris isnÃ¢â¬â¢t bringing in much money, and his wife is already working two jobs, and after she leaves, they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t able to pay the rent on time and get kicked out of their apartment. The entire movie is connected with much sociology content, which can help connect the movie to real life situations. The movie Pursuit of Happiness relates to sociology also through social equality. It thrives for this through the movie. Social equality is when everyone has completely equal treatment and opportunity. With so cial equality, there would be no separating by race, gender, religion, and social class. By doing so, it relates to all of the spoken of chapters in our book. In this movie, Chris Gardner is criticized of by his race, and social class. He has to live in a homeless shelter many nights, not being able to correctly feed his child, or give him what he needs. After being accepted for the internship, he does as much work as he possibly can and works as hard as he can so that he can win and get a job promotion. He stands up for himself, after being thrown in jail and not being able to go home and take a shower before his big meeting, and shows the business men that he has what they want, in courage and in confidence. By doing this, he gets the job, and is in better hands for his future, and his son. Sociology is built within this movie, especially since it is focused around society and the government. Bring poor, having a low income, having a slow job, and other things that can help make y ou have more and harder trouble with the world is what this movie is based on. It is especially centered on how one man can make a difference for a whole family, when taken to the extreme. By him getting out and earning what he got, and deserving every bit of it, it shows us that there is hope.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Macro12.13 - Essay Example There have been more investments and more growth of GDP (Pethokoukis 2012). The rise in OPEC oil prices as a result of fall in supply leads to a fall in demand for oil. The import of oil reduces by the oil importing countries. The prices of goods in the economy rise, and the rise depends upon the economyÃ¢â¬â¢s dependence on oil imports. Hence the rate of inflation soars high causing a macroeconomic slowdown (See figure below). The rate at which the economies recover from the recession depends upon the monetary policies adopted by the government. If the money supply curve is more elastic, the government targets to put control upon the interest rate. At lower interest rates the investors would be encouraged to make investments and the economy would recover faster. 3. Adaptive expectation is based on the principle that economic agents build their expectation of any macroeconomic variable, as the inflation rate or price level, as a weighted average of their past observations regarding that variable. Adaptive expectations are used in forecasting figures taking into consideration the interest and inflation rates. In this formation the agents ignore the changes taking place in the monetary and fiscal policies and only base their expectations on the past observations. One of the components of the rational expectation hypothesis, Robert E. Lucas, has emphasized upon the fact that the economic agents exhibit rational behavior by making a forecast of the economic variables taking into consideration the past as well as the present information available. If the government announces an inflation rate and chooses a different rate and increases the money supply, producers would increase output following the increase in prices. In the short run, this would increase output level in the economy, but with rational expectations, the agents would endogenize the discretionary policy of the government, at which point output
Monday, November 18, 2019
Based on the source, write a frictional story about 4 page long on the Song Dynasty - Essay Example Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t be loud while saying that,Ã¢â¬ she replied in a whisper. I could understand the seriousness depicted through the sound wrinkles in her face shown by the bright moonlight. The mother had just a single caution if not a problem, she felt I should be protected from any possible persecution as the emperor spies had their ears laid on the ground so as to gather any spark of information. On the previous day, I heard my father narrating the declarations of King Liu Bei concerning the forthcoming war against Cao Cao to my mother at dusk. The king together with his friend from a neighboring kingdom, Sun Quan had vowed to fight and defend their kingdoms in earnest against any possible conquer by Cao Cao. The father concluded his story outlining that it was actually a time of war, and they (men) should be ready with their weapons and it was never a time for women. The women had their functions stated clearly as being responsible for motivating their men besides offering food and any probable support. I have a clear memory still of the last words I shared with my father before going to war. It appeared the war could be serious since it involved three kingdoms, but one army appeared to be well endowed with soldiers. Ã¢â¬Å"In case the war erupts, I think the battle field would be by the Yangtze River,Ã¢â¬ I told my father. Ã¢â¬Å"No, the destination of the war is not clear yet my son,Ã¢â¬ he replied. Soon, I could see him in his war gear characterized by a sword on the waist together with a stone and bronze armor. At this juncture, I expected to hear of survival after the war or the worst as had been experienced by unfortunate sons of women in the previous wars. I thought it was not yet the time for me to lose my father conversely, the feeling of my father losing his father in the previous wars overcame my conscience. I could believe slightly that it was the fate of my grandfatherÃ¢â¬â¢s lineage that they
Saturday, November 16, 2019
The British movie Essay The implication of escape is shadowed in the present film. One treats Gal as a criminal more eagerly than a fugitive. However, this character is haunted in both direct and figurative meanings. Whereas Don abuses GalÃ¢â¬â¢s stable mode of living by fierce jokes and physical violence, the whole GalÃ¢â¬â¢s background abuses the heroÃ¢â¬â¢s soul by ominous signs (e. g. , the rock falling to the pool) and dreams. The conflict between the escapee (Gal) and the persecutor (Don and the criminal world) is revealed in the very title. In the East End vernacular, the phrase sexy beast is used as a compliment and means Ã¢â¬Å"a handsome chap, a reliable mate or a trustworthy accompliceÃ¢â¬ (Earnshaw 2001, p. 5). The title hints at the positive side of GalÃ¢â¬â¢s London past (material wealth, friends, familiar environment) and, simultaneously, at the darkest sides of the heroÃ¢â¬â¢s background made explicit in the dream of a hairy beast pursuing Gal at nights. The same type of the hero as a fugitive is present in KitanoÃ¢â¬â¢s Hana-bi. The Japanese title of this film consists of two words, translated to English as Ã¢â¬ËfireÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËflowersÃ¢â¬â¢ [the English aka Ã¢â¬ËFireworksÃ¢â¬â¢]. The main character of the film, Yoshitaka Nishi (Takeshi Kitano), seems to be torn between the Ã¢â¬ËflowersÃ¢â¬â¢ of his life to the mortally ill wife and the impaired friend, and the Ã¢â¬ËfireÃ¢â¬â¢ of his hopeless race for peace and stability. Nishi used to be a cop. Nevertheless, hardly can this story be considered a Ã¢â¬ËcopÃ¢â¬â¢ narrative. The film traces the evolution of the hero from the stage of a law-abider to the one of a fugitive and an outlaw. The narrative implicitly promotes the idea that there are certain moral principles equating a cop, a fugitive and a criminal Ã¢â¬â the love for the family, the affection for the friend, the acid mourning over acid unbearable existence. Nishi quits his beloved job to take care of his wife. He desperately needs money and borrows a large sum from yakuza. They send over young thugs to play rough with Nishi when he refuses to pay back the interest. The ex-cop assaults the intruders, thus, turning momentarily from a fugitive into a criminal. The movie provides no classification for its heroes. Instead, it shows Ã¢â¬Å"an endless circleÃ¢â¬ (Cannon, 1997, para. 2, lines 6-8) of the global crime net where plain people such as Nishi, the kin young policemen who replaced Nishi and Horibe, NishiÃ¢â¬â¢s wife and friend try to survive and establish some kind or order and justice. As Cannon (1997, para. 4, lines 2-4) stated, the main character is the embodiment of contradiction: Ã¢â¬Å"[I]n one instant a warm and gentle husband, in the next a sadistic and ruthless bullyÃ¢â¬ . Due to this ambivalence, Hana-bi may be referred to as a critical film which emphasises Ã¢â¬Å"the impossibility of heroism and the inevitability of injusticeÃ¢â¬ (Rafter 2000, p. 12). An avenger The British movie Get Carter and the American film Gangs of New York provide the viewer with remarkable portraits of avengers. Chibnall and Murphy (1999, p. 4) defined revenge films as the ones Ã¢â¬Å"where a wronged man, denied access to the law, pursues his own path of justiceÃ¢â¬ . The movie Get Carter was criticised for its Ã¢â¬Å"perfunctory plot, its mechanical manipulation of characters or a vision of the British underworld that relies totally on clicheÃ¢â¬ (Andrews 1971 cited Murphy 1999, p. 128). However, the treatment of the main characterÃ¢â¬â¢s features can hardly be called mechanical. Jack Carter, the hero of the British cult film Get Carter, is Ã¢â¬Å"an implacable avenging angel in a black raincoatÃ¢â¬ (Billson 1991 cited Murphy 1999, p. 129) revenging on the criminals for killing his brother and seducing his niece. But despite CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s motivations for being an almost mythical angel of wrath, he never stopped to be a cruel criminal himself having killed four people and being responsible for even more cases of violence. Jack Carter is neither an upholder of justice nor a saviour of the weak and humble, but he operates by a strict code that he expects his colleagues and enemies to share. [Ã¢â¬ ¦] Carter is confronted by a society afflicted by pornographic malaise. But his righteous anger is less about sleaze itself than about how it has leaked out of its proper underworld milieu to engulf his niece and destroy his brother. Carter is not so self-consciously evil [Ã¢â¬ ¦] or [Ã¢â¬ ¦] morbidly obsessed [Ã¢â¬ ¦] but he does share some of the characteristics of the Jacobean revenge tragedy protagonist. A wrong has been done-less to Carter himself than to his family Ã¢â¬â which must be righted at whatever cost. (Murphy, 1999, p. 132) Carter is synthetic in his nature. On the one hand, he reaches almost legendary heights in his revengeful crusade. On the other hand, his Ã¢â¬Å"fussy concern with nose drops, vitamin pills and the cleanliness of British Railways cutleryÃ¢â¬ stands for his Ã¢â¬Å"human frailtyÃ¢â¬ (Murphy 1999, p. 129). The hero of the American film Gangs of New York is neither a pure type of an avenger. On the one hand, Amsterdam Vallon infiltrates the gang of The Butcher Cutting to revenge for the death of Vallon-father. On the other hand, Amsterdam finds the substitute of the father in his once hated target. The character of Amsterdam provides an interesting synthetic type of Ã¢â¬Ëa man-on-the-runÃ¢â¬â¢ (he spent some years in anonymity after his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s murder till the re-emergence in the rival gang) and Ã¢â¬Ëa man-in-disguiseÃ¢â¬â¢.